Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater (or treated effluent) that is safer for the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is usually a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge. The sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land.
- i) Suspended Growth process( Conventional method)
- ii) FBBR Process(Fluidized Bed Biological Reactor )
- iii) E-STP( Electro Coagulation method).
- iv) SBR Process ( Sequence Batch Reactor)
- v) Considered Technology
Effluent treatment plant, a process to convert wastewater - which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use - into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused.
Effective effluent management
The five steps to effective effluent management are:
- i) characterise all effluents produced on-site;
- ii) implement a waste minimisation programme to reduce the volume and strengths of effluents;
- iii) incorporate in-process conditioning and treatment, where appropriate;
- iv) determine and install segregation facilities to tailor treatment options;
- v) optimise performance of ETP
To comply with discharge consent conditions and reduce the environmental burden of their discharges, companies often need to modify their processes and/or install an effluent treatment plant (ETP).
Why do we need to treat?
It is predicted that a litre of untreated wastewater pollutes 8 litres of freshwater. Because wastewater management reduces waste and removes harmful bacteria and chemicals in a water supply, it has the potential to protect wildlife and fish by supplying clean water to local rivers and streams. People can enjoy activities around these bodies of water knowing that the water is clean and contaminant-free. The water from the treatment plant can be repurposed to treat areas experiencing dry conditions. The process is eco-friendly as it reduces water that would have otherwise been written off as unsanitary and disposed of accordingly. Historically, this practice has led to the destruction and pollution of many different habitats with contaminated water killing many different plants and animals.
And most importantly
A significant amount of biodegradable material is removed from water in the treatment process. This can then be used to produce Methane gas (Bio Gas) and used as a source of electricity. Methane gas is often used to power the treatment plant itself and can even be used by the location the plant is located in, leading to reduced stress on the non-renewable energy supply. Biodegradable materials removed in the process can also be given to the agricultural sector. These solids can be used as a natural fertilizer in local crop fields and reduce the use of other products that are more harmful to people and the environment.